Verify information

Verify Information

Currency. Relevance. Authority. Accuracy. Purpose. Determine how reliable your information is using the CRAAP test.

Difficulty: 3/5


Varies based on the information you want to verify.

Allocate enough time to ensure you’re delivering reliable information.


Individual or in groups

Core Competency Connection

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  • Websites
  • Books
  • Articles
  • Etc.



The Process

Step 1: Currency

  • The timeliness of the info.
  • When was it published?
  • Is it current or out-of-date for your topic?

Step 2: Relevance

  • How the info fits your needs.
  • Does it answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Could you use this source in a research paper?

Step 3: Authority

  • The source of the info (publisher, journal, organization, etc.)
  • What are the author/editor’s qualifications to write on the topic?
  • Are any conflicts of interest present?
  • Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source (i.e., .com, .edu, .gov, .org, .net)?

Step 4: Accuracy

  • The reliability and correctness of the content.
  • Where does the information come from? Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
  • Does the language or tone seem unbiased?

Step 5: Purpose

  • The reason the info exists.
  • What is the purpose of the information? To inform? Teach? Sell? Entertain? Persuade?
  • Is the information fact, or opinion?
  • Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases present?
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Design Hack

While Wikipedia has been known to lack information accuracy, the references listed at the end of articles can be great sources of reliable information.

CTLI Staff

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